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Why Churches? BECAUSE I don't do museums. This is a running joke among my friends. At this point in time, I choose not to spend my limited hours in a single museum but roaming about the cities. After my return from Europe 1999 I discovered that I had walked by the many "free" museums of Europe. Below are the churches that I visited and the details about the artwork that I was able to see. Occasionally admission of a few thousand lira was required, but rarely. All photography was done without a flash and handheld for longer exposures.

Milan Lake Como Verona Venice
Florence Lucca Cinque Terre Siena
Assisi Orvieto Rome
Milan

Duomo - PHOTO
- Gothic church
- Built between 1386 - 1810
- Bronze doors
- Statues and gargoyles on roof

Lake Como

Varenna

San Giorgi - PHOTO
- 13th century Gothic architecture
- 1653 bell tower with conical cusp
- "a sala" structure with its nave and 2 side aisles supported by frescoed pillars
- 14th and 15th century paintings include:
-- a Purgatory scene
-- a Procession of the Saints
-- scenes from the life of San Giorgio
- two polyptychs from 1450 and 1494
- panels painted by Giovan Pietro Brentani (1467)
- Baptism of Christ by Sigismondo de Magistris (1553)
- baroque confessional by Giovanni Albiolo (1690)
- sculpture showing the Deposition from the Cross - 16th century painted soft limestone.

Saint John the Baptist - PHOTO
- Built in 769 AD
- Frescoes 1143AD

Bellagio

Basilica of San Giacomo - PHOTO
- Romanesque-Lombard style built between 1075 and 1125 by the Masters of Como
- 10th century mosaics
- 6th centruy alter
- "Deposition of Christ" by the Perugino school
- Archaic cross(XII. cent.)
- Triptych by Foppa (1432)
- Palychrome wooden sculpture of the "Buried Christ" of the Spanish-Baroque school.

San Giorgio - PHOTO
- Romanesque chapel dating 1080-1120
- Inside carvings in walnut
- 11th century ceiling fresco "Madonna della Cintura"

Verona

Basilica of Santa Anastasia - PHOTO
- Gothic church, erected by the Dominicans 1289 - 1481
- Unfinished facade decorated with 14th century door
- Holy water stoups (1495)
- Cavalli family Chapel decorated with fresco by Altichiero (1380)
- St. George and the Princess fresco (1433-38) by Pisanello

Venice

San Polo
- Founded 9th century
- Major work on the church took place in the 15th century
- Second refurbishment took place in 1804
- Neo-classical super-structure: the wooden ceiling, the apsed presbytery and single light windows
- 14 pictures of the Stations of the Cross by Giandomenico Tiepolo (1749)
- The Last Supper and The Assumption of the Virgin with Saints by Jacopo Tintoretto
- The Presbytery entirely decorated with works by Palma il Giovane
- Chapel of the Sacrament decorated with 18th-century frescoes by Salviati
- Altar decorated with Paolo Veronese's The Marriage of the Virgin
- Altar contains Giambattista Tiepolo's - The Virgin appearing to San Giovanni Nepomuk (1754)
- Oratory of the Crucifixion by Giandomenico

San Rocco
- Designed by Bartolomero Bon in 1489
- Rebuilt in 1725
- Facade added 1765-71
- Series of paintings by Tintoretto

Santa Maria Glorisa dei Frari - PHOTO
- Originally built between 1236 and 1338 by the Franciscan Conventual Friars
- Re-modeled in the 14th century after Franciscan-Gothic designs.
- Tron and Foscari Monuments
- Works of art:
-- Titian's - The Assumption of the Virgin (1516-18) and Pesaro Altarpiece (1526)
-- Giovanni Bellini's Triptych with Virgin and Saints (1488)
-- Bartolomeo Vivarini's St. Mark's Triptych (1474)
-- Donatello: wooden statue of St. John the Baptist
-- Alessandro Vittoria: statue of St. Jerome

San Giovanni in Bragora - PHOTO
- Gothic (1475-9)
- Altarpiece by Bartolomeo Vivarini
- Baptism of Christ by Cima da Conegliano (1492-5)

San Zaccaria - PHOTO
- Blended gothic and Classical renaissance
- Founded 9th century
- Madonna and Child with Saints by Giovanni Bellini (1505)
- Frescoes (1442) by Andrea del Castagno and Giovanni d'Alemagna

San Marco Basicilia
- Built after the 9th century
- Decorated between the 10th and 13th century
- Mosaic pavement, dome and walls
- Carvings, paintings

Santo Stefano
- Built in 14th century, Venetian Flamboyant Gothic
- Interior has a ship's keel ceiling
- Bartolomeo Bon's carved marble portal
- Choirstalls with inlaid wood dating from 1488
- Jacopo Tintoretto's:
-- Last Supper
-- The Washing of the Feet
-- Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane (1575-1580)
- Paris Bordon's Baptism of Christ (16th century)
- Polyptych by Bartolomeo Vivarini
- Head of St. Sebastian (sculpture) by Tullio Lombardo

Gesuasti - PHOTO
- Frescoes (1737 - 1739) by Tiepolo:
-- The Glory of St Dominic
-- The Institution of the Rosary
-- The Apparition of the Virgin Mary to St Dominic
-- The Virgin with Three Dominican Saints painted 1748.

Santa Maria della Visitazione - PHOTO
- First foundation 15th century
- Completely rebuilt it in the 1745
- The facade with a bas-relief the La Carita by the sculptor Marsili (1800)
- Egg-shaped plan with a vaulted ceiling
- Frescoes by Gian Battista Tiepolo:
-- The Crowning of the Immaculate Virgin
-- Cardinal Virtues
-- David and the Angel

San Sebastiano
- Built 1555
- Paintings by Paolo Veronese
- Other works include pieces by
-- Jacopo Tintoretto
-- Bonifacio de' Pitati
-- Titian's St. Nicolas (1563)
-- Paris Bordone
-- Jacopo Sansovino
-- Palma il Giovane
-- Alessandro Vittoria

San Nicole dei Mendicoli
- Founded 7th century
- Rebuilt extensively
- 16th century wooden gilded statutes
- Paintings by Alvise dal Friso

San Giovanni Grisostomo
- Built 1479-1504
- Renaissance design
- St. Jerome with Saint Christopher and Augustine painting by Giovanni Bellini
- St. John Chrysostom and Six Saints painting by Sebastiano del Piombo (1509-11)

Santa Maria dei Miracoli - PHOTO
- Built in 1481-9
- Decorated with various shades of pink, white, and gray marble
- The Virgin and Child, painting by Nicolo di Pietro
- 50 portraits of saints and prophets
- Balustrade by Tullio Lombardo

Santa Maria Formosa
- Designed by Mauro Coducci in 1492
- Campanile added in 1688
- Works of art:
-- St Barbara polyptych painting by Jacopo Palma il Vecchio (1480-1510)
-- Leandro Bassano's Last Supper (end of the 16th century)
-- Bartolomeo Vivarini's Triptych painting of the Madonna of Mercy (1473)
-- Madonna with Child painted by the 18th-century artist Giandomenico Tiepolo.

Florence

Duomo (Santa Maria del Fiore)
- Neo-gothic marble facade added 1871-87 covered with pink, white, and green Tuscan marble
- Dome by Brunelleschi finished in 1463
- The Last Judgement (1572-4) fresco by Vasari, completed by Zuccari
- Two frescoes by Paolo Uccello (1436) and Andrea del Castagno (1456)
- Wooden inlays of the Sacristy cupboards designsed by Brunelleschi, Antonio Del Pollaiolo and others
- 15th century stained glass by Ghiberti
- High altar by Baccio Bandinelli (1555)
- Marble pavement 16th century by Bacciod'Agnolo and Francesco da Sangallo
- Dante explaining the Divine Comedy by Michelino

Campanile
- Designed by Arnolfo di Giotto in 1334, completed in 1359
- 276 feet high, 413 steps
- Known as the "Campanile di Giotto"
- The traditional pointed finial was never added
- White, green and pink Tuscan marble
- Marble panels illustrate the theme of the order of the universe

Santa Maria Novella
- Began building in 1246 and was finished in the middle of the 14th century
- Campanile and the Sacristy by Jacopo Talenti
- Facade was remodeled between 1456 and 1470 by Leon Battista Alberti
- Frescoes
-- Trinity by Masaccio (1428)
-- Cappella Strozzi di Mantova, with the Last Judgement, Hell and Paradise by Nardo di Cione or Orcagna.
-- Cappella di Filippo Strozzi by Filippino Lippi
-- Cappella Maggiore (or Tornabuoni Chapel) Stories of St. John the Baptist and Stories of the Madonna by Domenico Ghirlandaio
- Monument to the Beata Villana by Rossellino (1451)
- Bust of St. Antoninus (in terra cotta)
- Tomb of the Bishop of Fiesole by Tino da Camaino
- Ghiberti's lovely tombstone for Leonardo Dati (1423)
- Tomb of Filippo Strozzi by Benedetto da Maiano (1491)
- Vasari's Madonna of the Rosary (1568)
- Miracle of Jesus by Bronzino
- Crucifix by Brunelleschi
- Bronze Crucifix by Giambologna

Ognissanti (aka All Saints)
- Built 1279-1357, reconstructed baroque style in the 17th-18th century
- Bell tower still original
- Facade by Matteo Nifetti baroque architecture.
- Frescoes:
-- Madonna della Misericordia by Ghirlandaio (1472)
-- St. Augustine by Botticelli
-- The Last Supper by Ghirlandaio (1480)

Santa Maria dei Carmine - PHOTO

- 14th-century building was almost completely destroyed in a fire in 1771
- Present structure 18th century built by G. Ruggeri and G. Mannaioni
- Brancacci Chapel was not destroyed during the fire and has the following frescoes begun in 1425 by Masolino da Panicale
-- Temptation of Adam and Eve
-- St. Peter Resuscitating Tabitha
-- Preaching of St. Peter
-- St. Peter Heals a Cripple
-- St. Peter Baptizing the Neophytes
-- Expulsion from Paradise
-- Tribute Money - St. Peter taking the Coin from the Mouth of the Fish (left)
-- Jesus Ordering Peter to Fish (center)
-- St. Peter paying the Tribute to the Publican (right)
-- St. Peter and St. John distributing the Goods
-- St. Peter Healing the Sick with his Shadow
-- St. Peter in Cattedra (left)
-- St. Peter Bringing back to Life the Son of the Prefect Theophilus of Antioch
-- St. Peter in Prison Visited by St. Paul
-- Angel Freeing St. Peter from Prison and the double scene of frescoes by Filippino Lippi
-- St. Peter before the Prefect Agrippa
-- Crucifixion of St. Peter

Santo Spirito - PHOTO
- Foundation 1250
- Design by Brunelleschi in 1435is present form dating 15th century
Exterior
- Facade never finished, still only a rough plastered wall with an undefined silhouette at the top
- Dome was designed by Brunelleschi
- Bell tower is by Baccio d'Agnolo (1503)
Interior
- A Crucifix that may be an early work by Michelangelo
- Baroque baldacchino and High Altar by Giovanni Caccini (1607)
- Marble altar by Andrea Sansovino
- Three large doors made by Salvi d'Andrea (1483) on Brunelleschi's desi
- 38 side altars with 15th and 16th century paintings and sculpture works by Domenico Ghirlandaio and Filippino Lippi
- Paintings:
-- "Madonna del Soccorso" by an unknown 15th-century painter
-- Filippino Lippi's famous Madonna and Child with Saints
-- Madonna and Child with Angels and Saints by Raffaellino del Garboc
-- Saint Monica Establishing the Rule of the Augustinian Nuns by Francesco Botticini
-- Madonna and Child with Saints by Cosimo Rosselli
-- Madonna with Saints by Lorenzo di Credi
-- Madonna and Child with Four Saints by Maso di Banco
- Fresco:
-- Last Supper by Nardo di Cione
-- Several 17th century

Santa Felicita - PHOTO
- Site of 5th century oratory
- Remodeled often, present design by Federico Ruggeri (1736-9)
- Interior has a single nave in neoclassic style
- Madonna by Giovanni del Biondo
- In the Capponi family Chapel by Brunelleschi (1425) the following works:
-- altar fresco 'The Deposition' (1528) by Jacopo da Pontormo
-- Annunciation by Pontormo
-- the Four Evangelists by Pontormo and Bronzino
-- Sacristy (1470) in the style of Brunelleschi and uncertain attribution (Michelozzo or Leon Battista Alberti)
-- Adoration of the Magi by Francesco di Antonio (1450)
-- Madonna and Child with Saints, by Taddeo Gaddi
-- Saint Felicity with her Seven Sons by Neri di Bicci
-- Crucifix by Pacino di Buonaguida
-- 15th-century Pietà by an unknown painter
Orsanmichelle
- Built by Arnolfo di Cambio, 1290, it was destroyed in a fire in 1304
- Rebuilt in 1337 (Francesco Talenti, Neri di Fioravante and Neri di Cione)
- Between 1380 and 1404 the structure was transformed into a church
Exterior
- Niches and tabernacles with patron statues are set into the outer walls (particularly famous are:
-- Lorenza Ghiberti's St. John the Baptist, 1414-16
-- Verrocchio's St. Thomas, 1464-83
-- Nanni di Banco's Four Crowned Martyrs, 1408
-- copy of Donatello's St. George, 1416)
Interior
- 14th century altar by Andrea Orcagna flamboyant Gothic style (1355-59)
- Virgin and Child by Bernardo Daddi (1348)
- Madonna and Child with St. Anne statue by Francesco da Sangallo (1522)

Santa Croce
- Gothic church by Arnolfo di Cambio
- Begun work in 1294, consecrated in 1443
- 16th-century remodeling
- Trussed timber ceiling
- Neo-gothic facade by Niccolo Matas (1863)
- Campanile - neo-gothic (1842) by G. Baccani
- Funeral monuments:
-- Dante Alighieri by Ricci (1829)
-- Michelangelo by Vasari (1579)
-- Leonardo Bruni by Bernardo Rossellino
-- Rossini
-- Francesco Pazzi
-- Alfieri by Canova (1803)
-- Machiavelli by I.Spinazzi (1787)
-- Foscolo
- Frescoes
-- Fragments by Orcagna
-- St. John the Baptist and St. Francis by Domenico Veneziano(1450)
-- Stories of Mary by Gaddi
-- Madonna of the Girdleb Bastiano Mainardi (1490)
- Chapels
-- Pulci Chapel with frescoes by Bernardo Daddi
-- Castellani Chapel frescoed by Agnolo Gaddi (1385) with Stories of the Saints.
-- Tosinghi Chapel with the Assumption in Heaven by Giotto
-- Michelozzo's Medici Chapel contains a bas-relief by Donatello and various works by the Della Robbias.
-- Baroncelli Chapel frescoed by Taddeo Gaddi (1332-8)
-- Rinuccini Chapel, frescoed with Stories of the Magdalen and the Virgin by Giovanni da Milano
-- Velluti Chapel with Stories of St. Michael Archangel, perhaps by Cimabue
-- Chapels of the Peruzzi and the Bardi families frescoed by Giotto with Stories of St. John the Evangelist (1320) and Stories of St. Francis (1318)
-- Pazzi Chapel by Brunelleschi
-- Maggiore Chapel with the Legend of the Holy Cross (1380) by Agnolo Gaddi
- Floor is covered with old tombstones
- Marble pulpit by Benedetto da Maiano (1472-76)
- Crucifixion by Santi di Tito (1579)
- Madonna del Latte bas-relief by Antonio Rossellino (1478)
- Stained-glass windows date to the 14th century
- altarpiece is by Giovanni del Biondo (1379)
- Marsuppini Sepulcher by Desiderio da Settignano
- The Coronation of the Virgin by Giotto
- Crucifix by Gerini

San Lorenzo - PHOTO - PHOTO
- Consecrated by St. Ambrose in 393
- Rebuilt 1060 Romanesque
- Present building dates to 1423 designed and built by Brunelleschi.
- Bare facade lacks the marble revetment; Michelangelo's design was never carried out.
- The Sacrestia Vecchia or Old Sacristy was built by Brunelleschi between 1419 and 1428.
- The internal facade Michelangelo designed three doors
- Art work:
-- The ceiling has gilded rosettes in white-ground coffering.
-- Bronze pulpits by Donatello (1460)
-- St. Joseph and Christ in the Workshop fresco by Pietro Annigoni (modern artist)
-- Wedding of the Virgin by Rosso Fiorentino (1523)
-- Gothic tomb slab of F. Landini, organist, carved in 1398
-- St. Lawrence and the Adoration of the Magi
-- Ciborium of 1461 by Desiderio da Settignano
-- Roman sarcophagus, reused for the burial of Niccolò Stenone
-- Marble Crucifix by Baccio da Montelupo
-- Central dome with Florentine Saints in Glory frescoed by Vincenzo Meucci (1742)
-- Wooden statue of the Madonna and Child
-- Martyrdom of St. Lawrence fresco by Bronzino (1565-1569)
-- Marble choir-loft which may have been designed by Donatello.
-- The panel by Bellano and Bertoldo, includes: the Crucifixion, the Deposition, Passion of Christ, St. John the Evangelist and the Flagellation, Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, and the Resurrection

Lucca

Chiesa di San Paolino
- Only Renaissance building in Lucca
- Adjacent to site of ancient Roman decuman
- Built over the site of a heathen temple
- New churchbegun in 1522 actually dedicated to S. Paolino and S. Donato
- Three-divided facade built height-wise with the statues of St. Paulinus and St. Donato in niches on either side of the entrance door (1700)
- One-nave structure, barrel vaults, the side-chapels and the wide transept
- Two marble choirs finished in 1638

San Michele in Foro - PHOTO
- Built between 11th and 14th century
Exterior
- Twisted and inlaid marble columns
Interior
- Paintings by Filippino Lippi
-- Saint Helena
-- Saint Jerome
-- Saint Sebastian
-- Saint Roch
- works by:
-- Andrea Della Robbia
-- Agostino Marti
-- Pietro Paolini
-- Raffaello da Montelupo
Unknown Church - PHOTO
- No information available (NOTE: if anyone recognizes this church or has any information about it PLEASE contact me at pierzinski@hotmail.com) thanks

Chiesa di San Giovanni - Originally called Santa Reparata (754 A.D.)
- Dedicated to St. John the Baptist (881A.D.)
- Foundations of the church date back to 1st century Roman contains Roman mosaic pavement
- Marble sarcophagus was discovered in 1692 belonging to the Augustan age
- Marble urn containing a glass vase and the body of S. Pantaleone was discovered in 1714 under the altar

Cattedrale San Martino
- Some of the carving dates back to the fifth century
- Erected in 1060, dedicated to Saint Martin
- Completely rebuilt between the 12th and 15th centuries
- Facade was made in Romanesque style by Guidetto da Como in 1204.
- Porch has three doors with decorated portals by Guido Bigarelli and Nicola Pisano.
- Bell tower was erected in 1261
- Paintings by Tintoretto, Ghirlandaio and Filippino Lippi
- Tomb of Ilaria del Carretto by Jacopo della Quercia
- Tempietto sculpted by Matteo Civitali to house the Volto Santo ("Holy Face")

St Pietro Somaldi
- Built in 763
- Has historical tower

Basilica di San Frediano
- Facade is 13th century mosaic
- Fresco by Aspertini (1508-9)
- Volto Santo carving
- Altarpiece by Jacopo della Quercia (1422)

Cinque Terre

Monterosso
- San Giovanni Battista and San Francesco are from the 13th and 17th centuries

Vernazza
St Margherita di Antioca - PHOTO
- Built it in 1318
- Gothic church built with black stone quarried from Punta Mesco

Riomaggiore
San Giovanni Battista - PHOTO
- Built it in 1340, by the Bishop of Luni.
- Rebuilt in the Gothic style in 1870 because of deterioration.
- Facade was beginning to crumble and so was rebuilt in the Gothic style.

PISA (special note: did not have enough time to get inside the Duomo or Baptistry)
Duomo
Exterior only
- Pisan Romanesque
- Four tiered facade with colonades and arcades
- Bronze doors (1180) by Bonanno Pisano
- Buscheto tomb

Baptistry - PHOTO - - PHOTO
Exterior only - Largest in Italy
- Begun 1152, finished a century later
- Gothic style by Nicola and Giovanni Pisano

Siena

Duomo - PHOTO - PHOTO
- Built 1136-1382
- Striped facade
- 172 heads of popes on walls
- Sculptures by Michelango, Donatello, Bernini and Nicola Pisano
- Inlaid floor mosaics
- Frescoes by Pinturicchio

San Domenico
- Gothic church begun in 1226
- Chapel built in 1460
- Frescoes by Sodoma (1526)
- Preserved head of St. Catherine of Siena
- Portrait St. Catherine by Andrea Vanni

Assisi

Santa Maria degli Angeli - PHOTO
- Built around Poriziuncola Chapel
- Location where St. Francis died

Basilica di Santa Chiara
- Built 1265
- Tomb of St. Claire
- Gothic style (also known as "Franciscan" style) consecrated in 1265
- Facade consists of horizontal layers of pink and white stone

Basilicia di San Francesco - PHOTO
- Begun 1228
- Upper and lower levels
- Frescoes by Pietro Lorenzetti, Giotto, Simone Martini
- Rose window
- Tomb of St. Francis

Temple of Minerva/Santa Maria sopra Minerva - PHOTO
Exterior
- Roman columns
Interior
- Baroque 17th century

Orvieto

Duomo - PHOTO - PHOTO
- Begun 1290, 300 years to complete
Exterior
- Bronze doors
- Horizontal bands of white travertine and blue-grey basalt
Interior
- Painting by Fra Angelico
- Frescoes by
-- Bolsena
-- Lippo Memmi
-- Luca Signorelli
- 14th century rose window

Rome

Santa Maria Maggiore - PHOTO
- Built in 431 AD, the apse was rebuilt in the 13th century.
- 5th century mosiacs
- Tombs of Popes Pius V, Sixtus V, Paul V, Cardinal Rodriquez (1299), and Clement VIII.
- Under the altar is a crypt housing the remains of St. Matthais, who was the Apostle that was chosen to replace the vacancy left by Judas Iscariot.

San Clemente
- 12th basilica
- Roman ruins and 4th century church underneath
- Frescoes by Masolino da Panicale

San Pietro in Vincoli, (St. Peter in Chains) - PHOTO
- Ancient basilica dedicated to St Peter the Apostle.
- Restored by Pope Adrian I (772-795)
- Rebuilt by Pope Sixtus IV (1471-1484) and Pope Julius II (1503-1513).
- Renovated in 1875
- The church was known as the Titulus Eudoxiae or the Eudoxiana. It was built over the ruins of an Imperial villa in 442, to house the chains that had bound St Peter during his incarceration in Mamertine Prison. The chains of Peter are venerated in the confessio before the altar. The bronze doors to the shrine are by Caradosso, made in 1477.
- Portico was rebuilt between1471-1484 by Baccio Pontelli
- Marble entrance portal dating 15th century bears the arms of the Della Rovere family
- Part of the floor of the ancient church is still visible
- The nave has 22 ancient columns, dividing it into three aisles. The capitals are Doric with Ionic bases
- Frescoes:
-- The Miracle of the Chains by Giovanni Battista Parodi (1706)
-- frescoes added in 1577 by G. Coppi
-- Liberation of Peter by Domenichino 1604
- The tombs of:
-- Cardinal Margotti and Cardinal Agucchia are by Domenichino
-- Nicolò Cardinal da Cusa (died 1464)
-- artists Antonio and Piero Pollaiuolo, who were brothers
- works of art:
-- The Liberation of St Peter copy of a work by Domenichino
-- 5th century high altar
-- 17th century statue of St Margareth by Guercino.
-- The Deposition by Pomerancio
-- Cardinal Nicholas before St Peter relief by Andrea Bregno.
-- 7th century Byzantine mosaic of St Sebastian by an unknown artist
-- Painting of St Augustine attributed to Guercino
-- Moses by Michelangelo 1545 made for the monumental tomb of Pope Julius II and never completed

San Giovanni in Laterano - PHOTO - PHOTO
- First Christian church opened 313 A.D.
- Rebuilt several times
- top of the facade has huge statues of Christ and the Apostles
- 1646 interior restyled by Borromini
- Fresco by Giotto
- Heads of St. Peter and St. Paul within silver statues
- Huge statues of the Apostles (six on each side) are in niches along the sides of the nave.

Scala Santa - PHOTO
- Contains the Holy Stairs
- 28 steps, said to be those that Christ ascended in Pontius Pilate's house during his trial
- Ecce Homo sculpture by Giosue Meli (1874)

Basilicia San Giovanni e Paulo
- Dedicated to two martyrs of Julian the Apostate's persecution in the 4th century.
- Beneath the church, excavation found a number of paintings, both Christian and pagan, including frescoes of the 2nd and 3rd century. In Roman houses in which Christian's worshipped, and according to tradition one of these houses belonged to the two martyrs. They were martyred on the night of January 26th/27th 361and buried in secret in their house.
- Original church built in the 4th century known as Titulus Bizantiis
- Restored by Pope Leo I (440-461)
- Sacked by Norman raiders in 1084 and restoration completed in 1150
- Restored and altered 1715-1718 in the late Baroque style.
- 12th century facade restored 20th century, further excavations done
- Built portico (1158)
- Romanesque bell tower (1150) built on travertine from the Temple of Claudius.
- Side buttresses are from the 13th and 14th century - PHOTO
- Unique apse is influenced by the Lombard Romanesque style
- Interior transformed about 1718.
- The 13th century cosmatesque pavement
- Fresco Christ with Apostles in the Byzantine style dated to 1255.
- Painting The Madonna and Child with Sts John and Paul by Antoniazzo Romano (1455)
- The coffered ceiling dates from 1598.
- An ancient porphyry urn placed beneath the altar in 1726 contains the relics of St John and St Paul - The apse has a fresco by Pomerancio, The Redeemer in Glory from 1588.
- Three paintings from the 18th century:
- Sts John and Paul Decapitated by Giacomo Triga
- Sts John and Paul Give Their Goods to the Poor
- The Conversion of Terentianus by G.D. Piastrani

- 4th century martyr Saturnius is interred in one of the entrance chapels
- A chapel contains the relics of eleven martyrs from Scillium, North Africa. They were martyred in Carthage in 180 after refusing to hand over one of St Paul's letter.

Cappucin Crypt
- Under Santa Maria della Immaculata Concezione which was built in 1626
- Built in 1616, five underground chapels
- Bones of 4,000+ Capuchin monks in intricate ornate ceiling and wall Baroque patterns

Santa Maria Vittoria - PHOTO
- Built in 1620 by C. Maderno
- St. Teresa in Ecstasy statue by Bernini (1646)

Sant' Ignazio di Loyola
- Built 1626 by Cardinal Ludovisi
- Baroque church
- Fake dome
- Fresco over door
- Ceiling frescoes appear to be ascending into the Heavens. Some of the fresco figures also come down the side of the church walls from the ceiling

Santa Maria sopra Minvera - PHOTO
- Gothic, rebuilt in 1280 by the Dominicans
- Tombs
-- St. Catherine of Siena (body without head)
-- Pope Clement VII
-- Fra Angelico
- Frescoes by Filippino Lippo
- Christ bearing the Cross statue by Michelango (1521)

Gesu - PHOTO - PHOTO
- Built 1568-84
- First Jesuit church
- Fresco ceiling
- Tomb of St. Ignatius of Loyola
- Tomb of St. Francis Xavier
- Cardinal Roberto Bellarmine bust by Gian Bernini

Pantheon
- Built 1st century
- The building was constructed from a new material of the time called concrete
- Dome with 'oculus' (eye-in-the-sky)
- Consecrated as Church of Santa Maria ad Martyres under Pope Boniface IV in 609
- Marble inlaid floor (which is of the original Roman design) is sloped slightly so that rainwater would be able to drain from inside the building.
- The interior walls are lined with tombs, including that of painter Raphael and King Vittorio Emanuele II

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